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Chapter 1 :



Teaching is a process which usually takes place in classroom situations. The process of teaching is a kind of transfer or shearing of knowledge from on person to another. The person who transfers his/her knowledge is known as teacher and the one who receives it is known as taught. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop and skill. It involves sharing, telling and demonstrating information. Skill or knowledge which is unknown to observer, hearer or follower. Teaching is a relationship which is established among three focal points in education-the teacher, the student and the subject matter. Teaching is a process by which teacher brings the student and the subject matter together .teaching is not only telling and testing it is the complex art  of  guiding students through verity of experiences and activities towards the attainment of goals. Through teaching the teacher aims at: 

1.                  Providing opportunities for students to develop a void range of intellectual and other skills.

2.                  Modifying the behavior of students

3.                  Changing the attitude of students.

4.                   Preparing student to respond critically and constructively   change.

5.                  Developing students understanding of ethical dimensions of what they say and do.

6.                  Giving some experience of life.


Teaching is also a social process which is influenced by socio-political systems, cultures, philosophy values. Because of this reason it has been defined in different ways on the basis of socio-political system.

1.                  Autocratic meaning of teaching:-  An autocracy is a system of government in which a country or state is ruled by a person or group with total power. When this socio-political philosophy is implanted in school, a teacher behaves like an autocrat. The place of teaching is primary and that of student is secondary. Teacher remains active at the time of teaching and a student sit like fearful and passive learners and follow the instruction. Teachers consider him self as an ideal and imposes forcefully the knowledge externally into the peoples mind without knowing their abilities and capacities, competencies and needs. Students have no rise to criticize the teachers and are not even given permission to ask questions in the class.


H.C Morrison [1964] has defined autocratic teaching in following “word; “teaching is an intimate contact b/w a more mature personality and a less mature one which is designed to further the education of latter”


2.                  Democratic meaning of teaching:-  in democracy, ‘peoples representatives’ work according the wishes of people. When this type is implemented in a school system, a teacher teaches in class, keeping in view the needs, interests, abilities and feelings of his students. This type of teaching sees the young people not as passive recipients of knowledge but rather active co-creators of their own learning. They are not the products of an education system, but rather valued participants in a vibrant learning community. Democratic teaching begins with a premise that everyone is unique, so each of us learns in a unique way. In democratic set-up teacher creatively engage students in the class and influence each other. In democracy teaching is meaningful, joyous, relevant, engaging and empowering. Learners can openly ask questions and express their difference of opinions.


N.L Gage [1962]   has defined democratic type of teaching as; “a form of inter-personal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person”


3.                  Laissez –faire meaning of teaching;-  In laissez –faire set-up ruler does not impose any restriction on the subject. When this type of philosophy is implemented in the school organization, a teacher works like a friend and a guide in the class. The function of teacher is to create a conductive learning environment and provide opportunities to the pupil’s for solving their problems by avoiding his interference in the activities of the pupil’s. This develops there creative power. Teacher   presents facts and information before the students in such manner that gaps are left and students fill those gaps with there own efforts.



Brubacher   has defined this type of teaching in the following words:

 “teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of situation in which there are gapes and obstructions which an individual will seek to overcome  and form which he will learn in the course of doing so’’.


H.C Morrison [1939]  says, Teaching is an intimate contact  between a more nature personality and less mature one which is designed to further the education of latter’’

Jhon Brubacher  [1939]  ‘’teaching is  an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which there are gaps and  obstructions which are individual will seek to overcome and from which he will learn in course of  doing so.”

B.O Smith [1963]: Teaching  is a system of  action involving an agent, an end in view , and a situation including two seats of factor-those over which agent has no control [ class size , room , physical characteristics of pupils etc] and those that he can modify [ways of asking questions almost instructions and ways of structuring  information or ideas gleaned]”


Amidon and Hunter [1967]: “Teaching is interactive process .primarily involving class room talk, which usually takes place between teacher and a pupils and occurs during certain definable activities.”



American educational research association commission in hand book of research of teaching [1962]: “Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at a changing the behavior potential of another.”


Joyce and weli [1972]: Teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared environment including set of values and beliefs (agreement about what is improvement) which in turn color their view of reality.”



N.L Gage [1962]: “Teaching is form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person.”


N.L Flander: Teaching is an interaction process. Interaction means participation of both teacher and students and both are benefitted by this. The interaction takes place for achieving desired objectives.”



Thomas F. Green [1971]: Teaching is a process of a teacher which is performed for the development of the child.”


Yoakm and Simpson: “Teaching is a means whereby society trains the young in a selected environment as quickly as possible to adjust themselves to world in which they live.”



Jhon Chapman: “The gift of teaching is a peculiar talent, and it implies a need and craving in the teacher himself.”      





1.                  Teaching –an interactive process: teaching is an interactive process between a teacher and his pupils. It is carried for the attainment of some goals and objectives.

2.                  Teaching a social process: Teaching is a social process in which teacher applies his profession skill on a student [society].

3.                  Teaching a bipolar process: according to the eminent educationist Adams, teaching is a bipolar process, its one pole is teacher and another is student. Teacher brings desired changes in the behavior of the pupils by the influence of his own personality and pupil is influenced by following him. In this way both teacher and student are engaged actively.

4.                  Teaching as tri-polar process: teaching is a tri-polar process i;e it has three components. these are i} teacher ii} pupil, iii} environment. Environment plays an important role. Any teaching –learning process which is devoid of environment can’t be called good teaching.

5.                  Teaching as a purposeful activity: teaching is a purposeful and goal directed which ends at desired changes of learners’ behavior. When the desires and goals are fulfilled teaching is effective. Therefore, the purpose or goal is the pivot around which the entire system of learning and teaching resolves.

6.                  Teaching both art and science: Silverman [1966] has expressed the nature of teaching in these word “to be sure-like the practice od medicine-is very much an art which is to say, it calls for exercise of talent and creativity. But like, it is also a science, for it involves a repertoire of techniques, procedures and skills that can be systemically studied, desired and improved. A good teacher, like a good doctor, is one who adds creativity and inspiration to the basic repertoire”                                                                                              Always and in every case and in every situation teacher proceeds in his teaching with a purpose and accordingly he modifies the child under his charge.

7.                  Measurement of teaching is possible: i;e teachers behavior can be observed and rated quantitatively. The analysis and assessment may provide essential feedback for bringing desirable improvement in the process of teaching.

8.                  Teaching is both formal and informal: Teaching may occur both formally and informally. In both the ways, it meets the desired needs by and large. Teaching becomes formal when it takes place in the form of regular class. Teaching outside the school system is informal which is mostly dominated by instruction. Both formal and informal help in reaching the desired goals.

9.                  Teaching is diagnostic as well as remedial process: the teacher first of all find out the weakness of the student and then suggest the remedial measures. Today we are in a position to know conveniently about the intelligence of the pupil, his attitudes and his weakness on the basis of psychological researches. We can also identify very easily the competencies, capacities and emotional traits of the pupils by objective tests. We can make teaching diagnostic by these means. After diagnosing the teacher can suggest remedial measures.

10.              Teaching helps the pupil to adjust himself to his environment: There is a constant interaction of an individual with his environment. Right from his birth, the individual is faced with problems of making adjustment and adaption to his physical and social environment. Good teaching helps the student to adjust himself adequately to the new situation.’

11.               Teaching is progressive: the real education is based on personal experiences. Teaching presents new knowledge keeping in view the previous experiences of pupil. This changes and modifies the pupil behavior. Also self-confidence, self-reliance and other attributes get developed in pupil. Therefore, teaching is progressive.

12.              Teaching is organization of learning: Marshell, in his book, successful teaching, has written that the organization of learning means the unification of all the components of teaching. Hence the activities of the teacher and the pupil should be unified. These activities include all tasks, teaching methods and other components.


Teaching differentiated from other concepts:

1.                  Difference between  teaching and instruction:

The instruction does not involve an interaction between the teacher and pupil. Teacher does not get his students involved in his teaching and only inserts tidbits of knowledge into their minds like an autocrate.  But if full interaction is their between a teacher and student and the teacher leads the students to learning objectives, it is called teaching. The main difference between teaching and instruction is that teaching includes instruction but the instruction does not include teaching. Hence, the teaching is instruction but instruction is not teaching. Inspite, all the three   domains of behavior-cognitive, affective and psychomotor can be developed by teaching but the role of instruction is restricted to the development of cognitive domain of learning only. Instructions can be given by using machines [hardware technology] but teaching is not possible without an effective teacher.

2.                  Difference between teaching and training: Training refers to shaping of habits and behavior while teaching refers to constructing of habits and behavior. It means that training starts after only preliminary form of teaching. Training is restricted to enable the students to acquire a particular ability or interest in definite field. Training focuses on physical and mental preparations for a very specific task or skill.                                                 Teaching is usually a broader in focus then training. It is theoretical, while training is practical application of knowledge. Teaching seeks to impart new knowledge, while training equips the already knowledgeable with tools and techniques to develop a specific skill set. Teaching enriches mind, while training moulds habits or performance. Teaching provides breadth of knowledge in all spheres, while as training provides depth of knowledge in specific sphere. It has been said that the essence of teaching is causing another to know. It may similarly be said that the essence of training is causing another to do. Teachers generally give students feedback, while trainers receive feedback from trainees.


3.                  Difference between teaching and indoctrination: the process of teaching is the highest of teaching process. The maximum use of intelligence is expected to reach this highest level. In this process, the beliefs, ideas and assumptions etc, can be impressed upon others. The teaching can be possible without indoctrination but indoctrination can’t be possible without teaching.

4.                  Difference between teaching and learning:

Learning is the desired change in the behavior of the individual brought about through responses and experiences is called learning. Teaching helps the individual to learn. It otherwise means that learning is outcome of teaching. Thus teaching is done for creating learning. Learning is affected by acts of teaching and instruction. It means that teaching consists of learning as well. But learning is not the result of teaching or instruction i;e, learning can also take place by experience, maturation and motivation.                   Thomas green has explained that the learning cannot be possible without teaching, but without learning teaching is possible. Gates has also explained learning that “it is modification of behavior, through experiences and activity”.

5.                  Difference between teaching and education:

Education is a social process and teaching is the only method to further that social process. Education is life long process not confined the boundaries of an educational institution while teaching is an activity performed in controlled environment of the class. Education can be both formal informal but teaching is always a formal activity of class. The process of education goes on knowingly or unknowingly but teaching is done knowingly only in formal way. Teaching has some purpose. The achievement of the objective means teaching the teaching is successful otherwise it is unsuccessful. The teaching familiarizes the pupils only with curriculum while as in formal education all aspects such as the objectives, curriculum and teaching methods etc. are considered. Process of education is not always a deliberate effort, e;g we learn many by viewing film, through the purpose of viewing the viewing the film may be amusement only. Teaching on the other hand is performed after well deliberation and it has pre-determined objectives.




 Structure of teaching consists of variables which operate in the process of teaching and create learning conditions or situations. A variable has been defined as “any response or behavior which is manifested in different categories under different situations e;g effect of various amounts of study on students. Teaching process involve the following variables.

I] Teacher

II] Student

III] Textbooks/contact

IV} Instrumental methods

V] Instrumental aids

VI] Classroom Environment

The above given different can be classified as

1.                  Independent variable

2.                  Dependent variable

3.                  Intervening variable.

1)                  Independent variable:   the first variable of teaching is ‘teacher’. The teacher is said to be an independent variable. It can be manipulated according to our own will. By the manipulation of this variable we can manipulate the dependent variable. Teacher acts as the planner, organizer, leader and controller. He is free to perform various activities for providing learning experience to students.

2)                  Dependent variable:  Student is the dependent variable in teaching   process. Student is dependent on teacher. He is required to act according to the palnning and organization of the teacher. Teaching activities of the teacher influence the learning of the student.

3)                  Intervening variable:  Contact and the strategy of the presentation are intervening variables. The interaction between the teacher and the student is performed through these variables. The contact determines the mode of presentation-telling, showing and doing etc;



Variables of teaching perform three major functions which are:

1.                  Diagnostic function

2.                  Prescriptive function

3.                  Evaluative function


Just as a doctor diagnoses the disease first, then he prescribes the medicines for the cure of the disease and finally he studies the effects of the drugs on the patients and the treatment if the response of the drugs is not positive. Similarly, a teacher [independent variable] also goes through these processes in the classroom. He diagnoses the learning problems of the student then he suggests some remedial measures and finally he evaluates the behavior of students to know the effectiveness of his measure.

I] Diagnostic function: the initial task in changing or modifying the behavior of the students is to have proper diagnose of existing situation. The teacher performs the following diagnostic functions.                                                                                        A] Diagnosing the entering behavior of the student in terms of cognitive, co native and affective abilities. After this, teacher presents the new knowledge to the pupils.

B] Formulating specific educational objectives, the type and quality behavioral changes to be introduced in the students in the light of entering behavior and environmental conditions.

C]  Analysis of content, method and other facilities available for carrying out the task. It should be decided whether that content is according to pupil’s capacity or not.

D] Diagnosing his own personalities and capacities and bringing about desirable changes in his own behavior for achieving success mission of modifying the behavior of the students.

Like teacher student also performs the diagnostic function as listed below-

a)                  Diagnosing strength and weakness of his entering behavior

b)                  Assessing him in terms of tools of learning like power of expression, ability to think and analyze, emotional behavior etc.


2] Prescriptive function: In remedial function teacher tries to bring desired changes in the behavior of pupils. Here the teacher is more active; he has to work for the meaningful interaction. He makes the decision regarding the use of teaching methods, strategies and tactics and mutual relationships between various keeping in view the individual differences of the pupils. Cooperation of students is also important for carrying out the prescriptive function by the teacher.


3] Evaluative function:  This is the third important aspect of teaching. This function is concerned with the task of finding out the process and outcome of teaching process. Here the diagnostic and prescriptive aspect of teaching is evaluated. The criterion of evaluation is the achievement of the objectives. If the objectives are achieved, the remedy by the teacher is correct. Incase the results are contrary, necessary changes are made in the teaching learning process to get the desired results.



Teaching is complex task, to make this job easy and successful, a systematic planning is needed. Teaching is to be considered in terms of various steps and the steps constituting the process are called phases of teaching. Philip W Jackson thinks that if we are to obtain a complete description of the teaching activity, we must consider what the teacher does before and after the regular teaching in the class. Jackson analyses the teaching systematically in three steps-

1.                  Pre-active phase of teaching

2.                  Interactive phase of teaching

3.                  Post-active phase of teaching

1.                  PRE-ACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING-

Pre-active phase as the name implies is concerned with the preparation of teaching. Before actual classroom teaching or what Jackson calla “calm” part of teaching, a teacher has to perform many tasks. These tasks include such as preparing lesson plans, arranging furniture and equipment within classroom, manning papers, studying test reports, reading sections of a textbooks etc. the phase is therefore called the planning stage.

In pre-active stage following operations or sub-stages are involved:

1.                  Formulating or fixing up the goals-  First of all, the teacher formulates the teaching objectives in behavioral terms by using taxonomy of educational objectives. These objectives are of two types-

I]  in the form of entering behavior of pupil.

II] In the form of terminal behavior of pupils.

2.                  Decision making about the content: After fixing the goals, the has to arrange the sub-contents in a logical sequence in a such a way that it should function empirically. Content should be so arranged that it facilitates transfer of learning.

3.                  Decision making about the strategies for teaching:  Here the teacher select appropriate strategies and tactics keeping in view the content and level of the pupils with help of which the contents can be marked on the brain of pupils very easily.

4.                  Developing teaching strategies for specific subject matter: Decision making about the teaching methods and strategies for presenting the content is not sufficient but the teacher is also to decide how and when he will make use of  which method and strategy during classroom teaching.


2.                  INTERACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING: This is actual classroom teaching . It includes all those behavior and activities which a teacher uses after entering the classroom.

The teacher provides pupil’s verbal stimulation of various kind. “makes explanations, ask questions, listens to student’ responses and provides guidance” P.W Jackson.


The phase includes the following operations:

I-                   Sizing up of class

II-                Diagnosis of the class;

III-             Action and reaction of achievement


I} Sizing up of Class: As the teacher enters the classroom, he perceives the size of the class and throws his eyes on all the pupils. He locates which faces are discouraging, encouraging etc. in this way, he tries to size up the class group before teaching. Similarly, the students also size up the personality of the teacher in a few seconds. Hence, at this stage the teacher must look like a teacher first. He should posses all those qualities which are supposed to be present in a good teacher.

II} Diagnosis of learners: The teacher tries to diagnose the level of achievement in his students In three areas-

A-                Abilities of the learners:

B-                Interests and attitudes of learners:

C-                Academic background of learners:

This may done by asking some questions or enquiring about the matter.

III} Action and reaction of achievement:

This involves the following operations or sub stages:

A-Selection and presentation of stimuli- 

The stimuli in the action or activity of teaching can be verbal or non verbal, the teacher should be aware of the motive which is an appropriate stimulus or which is irrelevant stimuli in that particular teaching situation. The teacher should select the appropriate stimulus as  soon as the situation arises and an effort should be made to control the undesired activities to create the  situation and for desired activities. After selecting the stimuli,  the teacher should present them before the pupils. The teacher must know three things in presenting the stimuli: i) Form II) content and iii) order of sequence.

B- Feedback and reinforcement:

it increases the probability that a particular response will be repeated in future. In other word, those conditions which increase the possibility of occurrence of a particular response are termed as feedback or reinforcement. These conditions may be of two types:

1.                  Positive reinforcement- these are the conditions which increases the probability of re-occuring of desirable response of behavior e;g praise, appreciation, reward, knowledge of result etc.

2.                  Negative reinforcement- the conditions which decrease the probability of re-occuring the undesirable response or behavior e;g reproof etc.

Reinforcement is used for three purposes.  These are i} for strengthening the response, ii} for changing the response and iii} for modifying or correcting the response.


D-                Deployment of strategies-

At the time of interaction the teacher produces such activities and conditions by the reinforcement strategies which effect the activities of pupils. The deployment of the teaching strategies turns the pupil-teacher interaction impressive. The strategies of reinforcing the students and of controlling their verbal and non verbal behavior are used for imparting the subject content effectively while a teacher teaches in classroom.



This phase is also known as evaluative stage. It provides necessary feedback to the teacher and the student in bringing the desirable improvement in their improvement in their performance. It is related with both teaching and learning. The teacher analyses as to what extent the students have grasped the material presented to them. The teacher is able to see whether the methods and strategies used by him were successful and if so to what extent. It helps the teacher to teach things better in future. It also helps student to learn things better. It helps the teacher to decide whether he should proceed with the new contents or re-teach what has already been taught.


Following are the main operations at this stage-

1.                  Assessing the suitability of objectives determined.

2.                  Decision regarding re-teaching the content or further taking up the content.

3.                  Assessing the suitability of the instructional material and aids.

4.                  Assessing the impact of the classroom environment.



Various principles of teaching are summarized as under-

1-                  To make teaching successful, principle of planning is essential. It helps he teacher to come prepared before entering into the class and enables him to solve every problem concerning teaching very conveniently. A good teacher keeps his planning flexible throughout.

2-                  Another important principle of teaching is the principle of definite aim or objective. The teacher should fix certain objectives and then selected the material accordingly to achieve the objective.

3-                  The learning situation should provide freedom to develop creative contributions. Teacher should develop the habit of innovations in the pupils.

4-                  Learners need sympathetic guidance and if a teacher exhibits sufficient sympathy for pupils, he can be good guide to the pupils.

5-                  As the pupil grows, he begins to imagine his world in his own way. In this way, the pupil shows his interest in those subjects or activities which are linked to his personnel world. Keeping in view this thing, the teacher should relate the subjects matter with life of the pupils.

6-                  The principle of gradation helps the teacher to grade the selected material serially and helps him to present the material in a logical manner.



Educationists like the Herbert, Spencer and Comenius and teachers engaged in actual classroom teaching have evolved certain simple notions and working ways which prove helpful in the task of teaching.  They are known as maxims of teaching. Maxims of teaching have been discovered not invented. They are simply statements of the way in which teaching and learning go forward. They ensure effective and efficient teaching.


Some important maxims of teaching-

1.                  From to known to unknown: A good teacher should always plan his teaching on the principle of proceeding from known to known. Teacher should first activate pupil’s previous knowledge and present new knowledge on the basis of that activated previous knowledge of pupil. In other words, whatever the pupils know, the new knowledge of the unknown should be given on that basis.

2.                  From simple to complex- Teacher should start his teaching with the simpler things and the complex contents should be taught afterwards This creates interest in the pupil and also motivates him to aspire more. The teacher should decide what is easy and what is difficult keeping in view the interest, attitude, ability, potentiality and needs of the pupils. After that the teacher should divide the subject matter in such a way that simple aspects should come first and these should be followed by the complex one in an order.

3.                  From concrete to abstract- Mental development of pupils begins with the concrete and afterwards he gains micro-words for them. Therefore a good teaching should lead from concrete to abstract. The concrete material is to be shown and the pupils should be opportunities for acquiring direct experience in order to make them able to learn the abstract concepts at the later stage.

4.                  From particular to general- Generalized facts, principles, concepts and phenomenon are quite abstract in nature and therefore should not be presented in the beginning of the teaching. Specific examples should be presented before the pupils first and then the general laws or principles should be derived from those specific examples.

5.                  From actual to representation: A good teacher should always try to give first knowledge about actual things and then lead is students to artificial representation. Pupils should be made aware of those things first which exist before them and then those things should be presented which don’t exist before them. This facilitates the necessary knowledge concerning non-perceptual things or unseen things. From this point of view, first of all knowledge of present should be imparted to the pupil and then regarding past and future.

6.                  From whole to part: According to Gestalt psychologists, we first perceive the object as a whole an then its parts. Whole is not only greater then the parts but also more understandable, motivating and effective. For example. When we see some trees our attention goes on the entire tree, then on its stem, branches and leaves etc. therefore beginning should always be made with the whole and then step by step its various parts should be presented before the students.



Teaching is a social process which aims at maximizing learning. But teaching and learning is not related to each other in a bipolar manner. It means where there is teaching, there is learning but where there is learning it is not necessary that it is result of teaching. The learning may be due to other factor. This is the reason that learning theories have been proved unsuccessful in solving teaching problems. Teaching theories are all the time needed to solve teaching problems. The progress in this regard is that many teaching models have been developed keeping learning theories as base and hence they cannot be substitute of teaching theory. They however, work as a hypothesis for propounding teaching theories in future. Teaching models are the basis and first step for the indoctrination of the theory of teaching. In every model such situations are created in which there are interaction of pupils occurs causing the achievement of the objective by bringing about changes in the behavior.

Definitions of teaching model: 

1.      B.R Joyce- Teaching models are just instructional designs. They describe the process of specifying and producing particular environmental situations which cause the students to interact in such a way those specific changes occur in their behavior.

2.      Paul D Eggen et al: Models are prescriptive teaching strategies designed to accomplish particular instructional goals.

3.      N.J Jangira and Ajit Singh-    A model of teaching is a set of interrelated components arranged in a sequence which provides guidelines to realize specific goal. It helps in designing instructional and environmental facilities carrying out of these activities  and  realization of the stipulated objectives.


Characteristics of teaching models:

(I)      Based on assumptions: teaching models are based on the following assumptions.

i)          teaching models can be used to create appropriate learning environment.

ii)        Teacher student interaction through the content and teaching skills leads     to specific changes in the behavior of learners.

iii)      These models have been developed on the basis of learning theories but they help in developing teaching in future.

iv)      Teaching  models can present a real and practical outline of teaching.


(II)   Activities involved in teaching models:   In teaching models, the following six activities are included:

I)                   To give practical shape to the learning situation

II)                To select suitable stimulus so that the pupil may respond in desired manner.

III)             To observe the responses of learners.

IV)             To determine the criterion behavior of teachers and pupils.

V)                To specify the specific teaching strategies for achieving the desirable educational objectives by analyzing the interaction in the class room situations.

VI)             To Modify the teaching the teaching strategies and tactics if the expected changes in the behavior do not occur.

(III)-Introducing suitable experiences:  Teaching models provide suitable experiences to learners and the teacher both. By selecting the subject matter the teacher presents these experiences before the learners In such a way that become an enjoying experience for them.

(IV) Based on individual differences:  These models have been developed keeping in view the individual differences of learners. So every type  of learner can  be benefitted from them.

(V)- Based on maxims of teaching:  All these models are based on different maxims of teaching. These maxims of teaching very well explain the behavior of teacher and student.

(VI)-Practice and concentration:  These models have got recognition only after continuous and long practice. Hence its base is thinking. The development of teaching model is possibly only when the assumptions are made clear by thinking and necessary use of the problem.

Fundamental elements of teaching models:

Four fundamental elements are found in any teaching model.

1.      Focus:- Every teaching model has one or the other objective which is called its focal point. A teaching model is developed keeping in mind this focal point. The focus of the teaching model is that for which a teaching model is developed. Thus element is related to planning phase of teaching and all other three elements revolve round this.

2.      Syntax:- The syntax helps the teacher use the model, and how should begin and proceed further. In this element, teaching strategies and techniques are selected and their sequence is determined so that suitable learning situation may be created and objectives are achieved. In short syntax includes the sequence of steps involved in the organization of the complete programmed of the teaching.

3.      Social System:- A social system is according to the focus of teaching model. Since, every teaching model has separate objective, therefore every teaching model will have separate social system. Social system is related to the description of the following;

i)                    Interactive roles and relationship between teacher and students.

ii)                  The kinds of norms that are observed and student behavior which is rewarded.

4.      Support system: in support system behavior is evaluated by oral or written examination, to see what to extent the objectives has been achieved. In other words teaching was successful or not. On the basis of this success or failure, a clear idea is achieved regarding the effectiveness of those strategies, tactics and techniques which were used during techniques. If the teaching objectives are not realized modification in strategy and techniques are made.


Classification of teaching models:

Teaching models can be classified into three strategies;

I.                   Philosophical teaching models.

II.                Psychological teaching models.

III.             Modern teaching models.

I-Philosophical teaching models: Israel Saffler has mentioned following types of philosophical teaching

A)    The impression model of teaching- This model was propounded by John Locke. He believed that the mind of child is like plane slate at the time of his birth. Whatever experiences are provided to him through teaching put an impression on his mind.   This very impression is called learning. In this process,  the feelings of the sense organs and the principles of language play important roles in the teaching learning process. Powers of recognition, diversification, communication and perception are developed through practice and experience.

B)    Insight model of teaching:- Insight model was propounded by Plato. He believed that the knowledge cannot be provided by merely by speaking word and listening them. Mental processes and language both work together. This model discards the assumptions of impression model that the meaning of teaching model is merely to deliver the knowledge through teaching to the mental domains of pupils. Knowledge cannot be provided merely through the expressions of sense organs, but knowledge of the content is also important for this.

C)    The rule model- The developer of this model is Kant. In this model more importance is given to logic power. In logic certain rules are followed.  The objective of this model is to develop the capacities of pupils. The drawbacks of impression and insight model have been removed by the rule model.


II- Psychological model of teaching:  Psychologists assume that the teaching models can acquire the place of teaching theories. In psychological teaching models, the relationship of teaching objectives and teaching—learning activities are explained. Jhon P. Dececco has given the following teaching models;

A)    Basic Teaching model:   this model was propounded by Robert Glaser in 1962. In this model psychological principles and laws are used to realize the teaching objectives. This model has the following elements.

i)     Instructional objective:- it means those objectives which the teacher has to do before the start of his teaching i;e., analyzing the content, determining the teaching objectives and objectives in terms of behavioral change of learners. In other words, the objectives of teacher and pupils are called instructional objectives.

ii)   Entering behavior of leaning:- it refers to those fundamental abilities of pupils which are necessary for the understanding of the contents. Interaction between the teacher and pupils starts only when entering behavior is established. Before taking the students to the objective of the lesson their entering behavior is find out.

iii) Instructional process:- it ,means that those teaching activities which are used for the presentation of the contents e;g. use of teaching strategies and techniques, device and reinforcement, application of audio visual aids in teaching and regular feedback techniques. 

iv) Assessment of achievement: it means those tests on the basis of which a teacher takes decisions to what extent the learners have gained mastery over the subject matter. In this aspect, various methods, techniques strategies etc are used. Whatever may be the technique of evaluating the achievement of students but it should be valid, reliable, objective and efficient. Hence, the tests which are used in this step should be objective and reliable.

B)--  A computer based teaching model:- this teaching  model was developed by Lowrence Stuloro and Daniel Davis in 1965. This model has following elements---

i)   Entering behavior of the pupil.

II)  Determination of instructional objectives. 

III)  Teaching aspect—In this element computer teaching is selected according to the entering behavior of the pupils and instructional objectives. If the evaluation is satisfactory, then another teaching plan is presented. Teaching and diagnosis go side by side. Individual differences are also given importance.

C)—An interaction model of teaching:- this model is also known as Neel A Flenders social interaction model-1. Flender has considered teaching process as an interaction process.

Flender has divided classroom behaviors in ten categories, in this model behavior of teacher and pupils are analyzed. It has the following elements.

I)                   Objectives or Focus-it determines the interaction between the teacher and the pupils.

II)                Entering behavior-it includes the pupils feeling, ideas and information.

III)             Presentation- verbal interaction occur between a teacher and students.

IV)             Evaluation- in this, the achievement or performance are evaluated by tests and effectiveness of the interaction is decided.

III-Modern teaching model:-   B. R. Joyce has divided all teaching models into four categories:

1-Social interaction model:- in these models, social  aspects of human beings are kept in mind and their social development is more emphasized. It develops capacity of social adjustment among learners. These models can be used successfully in democracy. Social interaction model includes the four types of models-

a)      Group investigation model.

b)     Juris potential model.

c)      Social inquiry model

d)     Laboratory method model.

2-Models based on information process source:- in these models preference has been given to make the students understand the facts, information and principles. In these models, the solution of the problem and knowledge of stimuli are provided by creating effective environment. These models have proved useful for developing cognitive abilities of learners. This category of models include six types of models-

a)      Concept attainment model

b)      Inductive model

c)      Inquiry training model

d)     Biological science inquiry model

e)      Advanced organizational model

f)       Development model

3- Model based on personal source- In the third category of models emphasis has been given on developing individual capacities of learners. In such models more emphasis is given to the development of internal and external powers of the pupils. This facilities the development of self imagination and self understanding. This category of models include the following types-

a)      Synatics teaching model

b)      Non-directive teaching model

c)      Classroom model

d)     Awareness model

e)      Conceptual system model

4- Behavioral modification model: in these models, desirable changes are stressed with the help of reinforcement and learning activity in the behavior of pupils. It is directed to bring out desired changes in the behavior of learners. The following model is included in this category of model-

a)      Operant conditioning model.

Functions of teaching model:

1.      They help the teacher to select appropriate teaching techniques, strategies and methods for the effective utilization of the teaching situation and material for realizing objectives.

2.      They help in bringing about desirable changes in the behavior of learners.

3.      They the teacher in creating favorable situation for carrying teaching process.

4.      Teaching model helps in achieving some specific objectives.

5.      They help in the curriculum or contents of a course.

6.      They stimulate the development of new educational innovations.

7.        These models help to establish teaching and learning relationship empirically.

Levels of teaching:-

Teaching and learning are inter-related, inter-linked and interdependent. Teaching affects learning directly and indirectly both. All learning is the outcome of teaching. If we disregard the self efforts of learners, learning and its extent will depend on the level of teaching of the teacher. Only good teacher results In good learning. What  teacher wants to make his students depends upon what the objectives of teaching are. As soon as the level of teaching changes its objectives and evaluation of students also change accordingly. The teacher can  present the content at three levels, from thoughtless to thoughtful situations. These are-

1.    Memory level.

2.    Understanding level.

3.    Reflective level.

Only one level teaching is selected at a time. When one level of teaching completes and the teacher receives feedback from the students by the process of evaluation only then he proceeds to the next level. Determination of the level of teaching depends upon the following factors-

                     I.            Mental and academic level of students.

                  II.            Nature of content.

               III.            Skill of the teacher to use different strategies.

1.      Memory level of teaching:

This is a thought less teaching level and is considered as lowest level of teaching. In this level of teaching, emphasis is laid on the presentation of facts and information and its cramming. This level is considered mere reproduction of learnt material by students through recognition and recall. Hence, memory level lacks insight.

If the subject matter presented by the teacher is crammed by the students, the task of this level of teaching is said to be complete. The subject matter which is easy, interesting and purposeful is learnt by the students easily and retained for a longer period of time. On the other, difficult, dull and purposeless subject matter is learnt with difficulty and forgotten hurriedly. In this type of teaching the teacher is like a dictator who suppresses the interests, attitudes and freedom of students and inserts facts and information to the minds of learners and learner receive the content like mute audience. This makes it teacher centered teaching and low level of interaction occurs b/w teachers and students.

In the memory level teaching, signal learning and chain learning and stimulus response learning are emphasized. In the end both objective ans essay type examination are used to evaluate the learnt content. In spite of short comings, this level is the function stage of understanding and reflective levels.

Model of memory level of teaching:

Herbert is considered as the exponent of memory level of teaching. This model is based on following points:

1)    Focus-  The focus of memory level teaching is the emphasis on the following points:

i)                   Cramming facts and principles by students and their proper retention.

ii)                Recalling and re-presenting the learnt facts.

2.      Syntax- Herbert has divided the memory level teaching into five steps which are known as Herbert’s five formula steps. Teacher adopts these five steps to create proper learning environment. These steps are as follow:

I-                  Preparation and statement of objectives:- preparation is the first step of teaching method. At this stage the teacher asks few questions in the class in order to check previous knowledge of students and arouse curiosity. The teacher then brings the student to the main topic gradually and when the topic becomes clear to the students, teacher repeats the topic orally and writes it on the blackboard.

II-               Presentation: At this stage teacher presents the new knowledge before the students. The teacher tries to derive most of the information from the pupils so that a bond may be established between the previous and new knowledge. The teacher does not deviate from the subject matter slightly. At this stage the teacher gives such knowledge to students that can be evaluated.

III-            Comparison and association:- Here the relationship is established between different facts, events and experiments by comparisons which clarify the learning material in the minds of pupils.

IV-           Generalization- After explaining the basic lesson, the opportunities to think in this lesson. Teacher teaches how to develop new rules and principles on the given facts and information, i;e obtained knowledge is generalized situations.

V-              Application- this is the last stage where learnt knowledge is applied in real life situations. This makes the knowledge permanent and the laws can be verified.

3). Social System: The social system of memory level teaching is that teacher’s behavior dominates over students’ one. Almost no freedom is given to students to express themselves. As a result of this, the pupil functions as a passive listener. All the activities are performed by the teacher and the students follow considering them ideal.

4) Support System:-   in the  memory level of teaching, cramming is stressed. Hence, while evaluating the teaching of this level, both oral and written examinations are used. Tests may be objective and essay type both. Exactness of the response from the side of students is important.

2. Understanding Level of Teaching:

It includes both memory and insight. Memory level teaching is the pre-requisite for understanding level of teaching.   In understanding level of teaching, the teacher develops the mental capacities of students in such a manner that the students can now understand and apply the laws and principles in a confident manner. In other words, in memory level of teaching, the teacher tries to provide more and more opportunities to develop the intellectual behaviors of the pupils.

The role of students does not lag behind the teacher. Both teacher and students participate in developing the lesson when the teaching occurs at understanding level.

Understanding to some extent is a generalization based on certain facts but in addition it is also insight into how it may be applied in different situations. Unlike memory level teaching, it is thoughtful.

Model of Understanding level of teaching:

The model of understanding level teaching was prepared by Morrison. Hence, it is also named as Morrison’s teaching model. This model is basically based on unit approach of lesson planning. It includes the following four steps-

1)    Focus- Getting complete mastery over the subjects matter by the students is the focus of teaching here. In other words, the teacher stresses the mastery of content so that desirable change may occur in the personality of the pupils.

2)       Syntax-  Morrison has divided the understanding level  teaching model into five steps:

(a)              Exploration : here the teacher performs three activities;

(i)                            He explores the initial learning of the students by putting some questions. The teacher especially sees whether the memory level teaching is complete or not.

(ii)                         He analyses the content and arranges it in a logical sequence so that lesson can be understood easily.

(iii)                       He plans about the strategies that he would use in accordance with the environment and the situations prevailing there.

(B)           Presentation : At this stage, the teacher remains more active.   The      teacher performs the following three activities:

  (i)     Teacher presents the subject matter in small sub-units      and       maintains the logical sequence in between them.

(ii) While presenting the subject matter, he tries to find out how much the learners have been able to grasp.

(iv)                       He recapitulates the subject matter till it is clearly understood by almost all the student of the class. 

(C)  Assimilation:- At this stage, the students try to assimilate the acquired knowledge. It requires the following activities on the part of the teacher. It has the following characteristics;

(i) the students are provided with occasions for generalization through the process of assimilation.

(II) He takes the pupils to the depth of the subject matter through assimilation.

(iii) The learners have their individualized study. Pupils are provided opportunities to understand the content according to their learning capacities.

(iv)Students do self study during the activity of assimilation and teacher supervises them.  During this period, both teacher and pupil remain active. The pupils perform individual activities and the teachers guide according to the need during activity.

(v)                         There is test to see how much the learners have been able to grasp the subject matter. If the students have acquired the capacity of generalization, the assimilation process is said to be completed. If this does not happen, the teacher should provide re-opportunities for assimilation after observing precautions during supervision.

(D) Organization: according to Morrison, during organization, students are provide with re-presentation. The pupils reproduce the, matter in their notebooks without consulting       their teacher or books. Here the student learn how organize the matter and put in systematic way. This step helps the learners to have complete understanding of the subject matter.

(E) Recitation:- this is the last step of understanding level of teaching. During this stage, pupils present the contents orally before the teacher and mates.

3) Social System: the teacher is more active at the time of exploration and presentation.     This is necessary to control the behavior of pupils. In the assimilation period, both the teacher and pupil remain active. Teacher motivates his students also during all these stages of teaching. Thus, we see a fully democratic environment in the class.

4) Support System: Examination system of understanding- level teaching does not remain static, but it goes on changing. Sometimes written and sometimes oral tests are conducted during various steps of understanding level of teaching. Tests may be essay and objective type both. Organizational ability of pupils is more emphasized, hence, objective type tests are least applied.

3. Reflective level of teaching:

This is the highest level of teaching which starts when the understanding level of teaching is over. It is problem centered’ teaching, in this, the learner is stimulated to react critically. The teacher creates such a problem before the pupils which arouses so much mental tension in pupils that they start solving their problems by formulating and testing their hypothesis as a result of their own motivation and activeness. At last, a time comes when the problem is solved. The teaching of reflective level cooperates in developing creative capacities by providing pupils with the opportunities of  developing intellectual behavior.

It is child centered approach of teaching where students are more active then the teacher and they deliberately consciously over the understood material. By doing so, the students present their original views.

M. Biggie has elaborated it into the following word, “Reflective level of teaching tends to develop the classroom atmosphere which is more active and exciting, more critical and penetrating and more open to fresh and open thinking. Furthermore, the type of enquiry pursued by a reflective class tends to be more rigorous and work producing then pursued at an  understanding learning level.

Thus, this level of teaching develops the thinking ability of students so that they can solve the real life related problems by reasoning, logic and imagination.

Model of reflective of teaching: the credit for developing reflective level of teaching goes to hunt. The summary of the model is given below-

1)      Focus—the focus of reflective level is to develop the following abilities among learners :

(I)                To develop the problem solving ability among the students.

(II)             To develop the creative and critical thinking among the students.

(III)          To develop original and free thinking power of students.

2)      Syntax—Syntax of this model is comprised of four steps, keeping in mind the individual and social nature-

(i)                 in the first step, the teacher presents the problematic situation before the students.

(ii)               In the second step, students formulate the hypothesis after pondering over the problem seriously. They can formulate more them one hypothesis for the solution of the problem.

(iii)             In the third step, students collect the data to verify the hypothesis.

(iv)              hypothesis is verified in the fourth step and results are derived on the basis of these tests which are the original ideas of students.

3)      Social System: the learning environment is open and independent. In reflective level of teaching, pupil occupies primary position and teacher’s place is secondary. Students can express themselves fully in the manner they like. Seminars and group discussions are also organized in the class for reaching the solution of the problem. Teachers job is to guide them.

4)      Support System: evaluation is reflective level of teaching is done either through essay type tests or through discussions, seminars speech competitions. Objective type tests are not useful in reflective level of teaching.