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Dr. RatiRan Dhakar

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Chapter 1 :

Number (वचन)

Number :- शब्द Latin Language के Numero word का व्युत्पन्न है। Numero शब्द का संक्षिप्त No. gSA अंग्रेजी भाषाओं Number  है।

Def. :-        Countable Nouns show number  (गिनी जाने वाली संज्ञायें वचन को प्रदर्शित करती है। ½

                    अंग्रेजी भाषा में Number दो प्रकार के होते हैं। (There are two kinds of Numbers. )

1-        Singular Number - एक वचन

2-        Plural Number - वहुवचन

        What is singular Number?

                    Singular number denotes/indicates one thing or one place or one animal or one person.  एक वचन संज्ञा सिर्फ एक ही वस्तु, स्थान, जानवर अथवा व्यक्ति को प्रदर्शित करती है।

For example :

                    Lad ¼ लड़का½] Lass ¼ लड़की½] boy, girl, damsel ¼ लड़की ½] Cow, dog, hotel ¼ होटेल ½ mare ¼ घोड़ी] Vixen  ¼ लोमड़ी ½] fox etc.

        Note: 'Fox' male है।

(2) Plural Number :It Denotes more than one thing or one person or one animal or one place.

                    बहुवचन संज्ञा एक से अधिक वस्तु, व्यक्ति, जानवर अथवा स्थान को प्रदर्शित करती है।

For example : lads, lasses, boys, girls, damsels, cows, dogs, hotels, mares, vixens, foxes etc.

Note :                    अंग्रेजी भाषा में  Dual  Number द्विवचन नहीं है।

How to change into plural from singular.

¼एक वचन से वहुवचन में कैसे वदला जाये।)

Rule : 1-    If a noun ends in 's', 'ss', 'sh', 'x', ‘ch’, ‘z’and 'o' the noun is made plural by adding 'es' to it. (  यदि किसी संज्ञा के अंत में 's', 'ss', sh', x, ‘ch’, ‘z’ तथा 'o'  हो तो उसका plural 'es' जोड़कर बनाया जाता है।)

For example :      Bus     =          Buses,                         Kiss    =          Kisses

                                Class   =          Classes                       dish     =          dishes

                                Wish   =          Wishes                       match =          Matches

                                Bench =          Benches                     Watch =          Watches

                                Box     =          Boxes                         Tax     =          Taxes

                                Fox     =          Foxes                          Branch=         Branches

                                Mango=         Mangoes                      Brush  =          Brushes

                                Cargo  =          Cargoes (The goods carried in a ship)

                                Buffalo=        buffaloes                   Potato             =          Potatoes

                                Echo   =          echoes                        negro              =          negroes,

                                Hero   =          Heroes                        Volcano         =          Volcanoes

                                Topaz =          Topazes                     Quiz                =          Quizes

                                Buzz   =          Buzzes

Note :                    उक्त नियम Verb में 's' या 'ess लगाने के लिये भी लागू होता है।

Execption :           अपवाद Ox      =          Oxen

                                            Studio =          Studios

                                            Photo  =          Photos

                                            Radio  =          Radios

                                            Banboo=        Banboos

                    Dynamo=       dynamos (a device for turning mechanical energy)

                    Canto              =          Cantos (Sections of a big poem)

                    piano              =          pianos

                    kito                 =          kitos

                    solo                 =          solos (apiece of music, dance performed by only one)

                    Memento       =          Mementos Le`fr fpUg

             Logo               =          Logos (a printed design, symbol)

                    ratio                =          ratios

quarto                 =          quartos (Sizes of page made by folding a standard sheet of  paper twice to make eight pages) 

                    Commando    =          Commandos (A soldier who is trained to make attacks)

                    Stereo             =          stereos ( A machine that plays)

                    Stomach         =          Stomachs      

                    Monarch        =          Monarchs

Note :        'ch' के अंत में होने पर उच्चारण ‘क’ होने पर केवल श्ेश् प्रयोग किया जाता है।